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Ecosystem In A Jar

One of the biggest things that has kept me occupied during this crazy pandemic has been gardening. Working outside with your hands while listening to music or a podcast creates relaxing, refreshing experiences — especially when they’re hard to come by. And it’s always exhilarating to see sprouts peeking out of the dirt for the first time!To make sure there will be enough water for the ecosystem to survive, dip each piece of moss in water and then lightly squeeze excess water out before placing into the jar. Do your best to have the moss sections form a flat layer over your base.

The other day I remembered the moment I felt in love with watching plants grow, and now I want to share that experience with you. In elementary school, my teacher had the class make their own ecosystems in a bottle — we were amazed! We each made a sealed, self-sustaining moss terrarium and I kept mine for several years, watching the moss slowly overtake the bottle.Rocks are important for drainage; they allow excess water to pool at the bottom of the jar. Rocks also provide something for the moss to grow onto. Moss is incredibly hardy and can grow on just about anything, as anyone with a brick patio can confirm.

I happened to have the lid for my jar handy, so I used it to make an air-tight seal. If you don’t have a lid, then covering the opening of your jar with plastic wrap and using a rubber band to hold it down works just as well!Place your mini ecosystem in a sunny spot and watch as your moss grows over time! You will also see the ecosystem’s water cycle in real time as the sun evaporates extra water and then condenses on the sides of the jar — only to drip back down to keep the moss hydrated.We all want our beautiful terrariums to thrive and bloom as long as possible and always be as vibrant as they are when we built them. But, how long do they actually last?

How many plants that you’ve owned met an early grave? Probably a few. It was just nature’s way you told yourself (of course it is!). The truth is, plants live outrageously long, and every plant that died on you… was probably your fault. Yikes again.
Take the time to set up your terrarium properly at the very start. Don’t rush it. This step probably has the biggest impact on how long your terrarium will last.Under optimal conditions and when properly cared for terrariums can last for decades. Though the average terrarium only lasts from four months to two years. Factors like light, moisture, temperature, selection of plants, and size of the container, all play a role in the lifespan of a terrarium.

A once-a-week check up is all it takes to spot problems early on. This step is a given though, as I’m sure you’ll be checking your terrarium out of excitement anyways.
The closest you can get to the “ideal” self-sustaining terrarium, is to build a bioactive terrarium and mimic the natural processes and cycles by adding lots of biodiversity (there’s a neat trick about biodiversity in the checklist). One problem though, it won’t look that good. Yikes?

So, now the question remains, how can you maximize the lifespan of a terrarium without sacrificing the shiny, perfect look that all of the terrariums you see on Pinterest have? Well, it all comes down to a few basic steps. I’ve included my checklist to get all of my terrariums to bloom for 3+ years further down.
Putting together a handful of pretty plants and building a terrarium is easy – anyone can do it. But, if you want to not only build a beautiful but also a healthy terrarium, then you have to put a little bit of thought into it.Terrariums are so great because they require little to no maintenance once you’ve set them up (correctly). The little maintenance a terrarium will sometimes need is a little haircut, or removing decaying matter.

Why do terrariums not need air?
The plant reuses the carbon dioxide present in the sealed up bottle to produce oxygen via photosynthesis and it uses the surplus of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide via respiration. This means that there is no need for frequent airing of your terrarium!
The trick is to follow a simple process, and have a set of rules that have been tried & tested. You want to make art, and beautiful terrariums, not rediscover photosynthesis. So that’s what you’ll do.

While plants need to be actively cared for, placed under the right temperature, with the right lighting, and watered regularly, terrariums just need a good initial setup, and good placement, so that they can sustain themselves afterward. And achieving that is much easier than you might think.
Truthfully, as a long-time terrarium enthusiast and a self-proclaimed expert, I wouldn’t overthink this. Terrariums are art. They’re not a natural reserve. If you want to build an ecosphere, it’s going to look much different than an enclosed garden – a terrarium.Springtails are an essential element to making your terrarium last long. They’re the pinch of bioactivity that is super low cost, and that will extend the lifespan of your terrarium the most.

Research doesn’t mean reading heaps of biology articles and memorizing the Latin names of every plant you like (unless you like that, like me!), it means simply checking the compatibility of the plants you want to include in your terrarium.
You should aim to build beautiful terrariums, that last at least a few years – which is completely fine. They’re not always going to be picture-perfect, but that’s fine – the ones you see online were all cleaned and wiped before they got posted.Theoretically, a perfectly optimized terrarium can last ridiculously long – years. Though, the average terrarium lasts only about 4 months to 2 years. Perfect conditions are not easy to provide, in fact, they’re almost impossible. And such a terrarium only exists on paper.

Food cannot be produced for the shrimp if the system starves for light. An excess of light will stimulate the algae to use the limited nutrients quickly. Also the pH of water will increase in excess growth of algae which eventually kills shrimps. So, water chemistry is quite important for EcoSpheres.
Reproduction of shrimp does occur in some EcoSpheres, but this is uncommon. The shrimp that are in the EcoSphere have purposely been chosen because they do not exhibit aggressive behavior towards each other. The algae and bacteria in the EcoSphere continuously reproduce. In fact, as time goes by, you can expect changes in the algae population in your EcoSphere.Share this:

Dr. Joe Hanson and Dr. Clair Folsome discovered and NASA become interested in these systems for a couple of reasons. Most importantly, they have potential to provide additional information on studies of Earth’s biosphere.EcoSpheres should be exposed to light for 4 to 12 hours daily. The light intensity should be quite low: Low indirect sunlight or ceiling mounted fluorescent lamps provide enough light. Direct sunlight increases the temperature inside the EcoSphere and also cause the algae to grow rapidly. Optimal temperature range is 15-27℃. Temperatures above 27℃ put excess stress on the system and below 15℃ metabolism of shrimps will slow down.The shrimp eat algae and bacteria. They can also eat shed exoskeletons (shrimp are crustaceans, their skeleton is on the outside rather than inside). After the old exoskeleton is shed a new one expands and hardens. When shrimp dies, the bacteria will quickly returns its nutrients to the system. Nothing goes to waste.

Although the ecosphere stands in very low light conditions (being fact that I am living in the Netherlands and nevertheless they are far away from possible sunlight) I couldn’t stop the rapid growth of algae. So I was covering the sphere with a black towel to prevent sunlight. And today the second day that I cover the ecosphere, I could only see two of my shrimps. After a long search for dead bodies, I found one of my live shrimps eating the dead one (the one on the left). At the moment I am not sure about the reason of their death. Is it pH increase due to algae growth or oxygen deficiency due to low light conditions? We will see…
Ecosphere is a closed minimal ecosystem. It is resulted from a project initiated by NASA. EcoSpheres are commercialised about 30 years ago. All the ecospheres labeled with a unique serial number so that the company can track its history and age of each ecosphere in case of a problem. Ecospheres have a lifespan of 2-3 years on average but there are systems that are living over 10 years.Shrimps are selected because they do not show aggressive behaviour towards each other. The gorgonian, gravel and glass provide surface area for microorganisms to grow and hiding areas for shrimps. The gorgonian is a non-living material and is hand cut for each individual EcoSphere.The EcoSphere is like a biological battery. The energy gained through light is stored and biochemically transformed. The base for the algae to produce oxygen is photosynthesis, for which the algae require light and carbon dioxide. The shrimp breath the oxygen produced by the algae and eat some of the algae and bacteria in the system. The bacteria is also useful in many ways. It transforms the waste, which is produced in the system, into reusable nutrients for the algae. To close the circle of life and interdependence in the EcoSphere, the shrimp and bacteria both create carbon dioxide which is again needed by the algae to start the circle with photosynthesis. Through this distribution of labor the EcoSphere achieves a balance of nature in its most simplistic form.Remaining shrimps still alive. They got bigger in size and become darker red in color. However, because of the algae growth they are limited in movement in the ecosphere.Skapa innehåll som är exklusivt för ditt varumärke genom att ta del av Getty Images globala datadrivna insikter och nätverk med fler än 340 000 skapare.

Få tillgång till det bästa från Getty Images med vår enkla abonnemangsplan. Miljontals högkvalitativa bilder och videor samt högkvalitativ musik väntar på dig.
Effektivisera ditt arbetsflöde med vårt förstklassiga digitala filhanteringssystem. Organisera, kontrollera, distribuera och mät allt ditt digitala innehåll.Interested in designing and making your very own terrarium? We at Ecoponics (terrarium workshop singapore) conduct regular individual and group terrarium workshops for both corporates and schools. Come participate in our terrarium workshops!

How long do closed terrariums last?
Under optimal conditions and when properly cared for terrariums can last for decades. Though the average terrarium only lasts from four months to two years. Factors like light, moisture, temperature, selection of plants, and size of the container, all play a role in the lifespan of a terrarium.
When you water your terrarium for the first time, water is absorbed by the plants through its roots. It is then released via its stomata as water vapor in a process known as transpiration. The released water vapors then condense along the glass walls of the terrarium bottle and trickle back down to the soil to be reabsorbed by the plant through its roots. And thus the entire water cycle repeats itself.Now, what about respiration? Respiration can be regarded as the converse of photosynthesis. While photosynthesis occurs in the day, respiration occurs in the night. During this process, plants take in oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.

A terrarium is a self-nourishing miniature garden enclosed in a bottle. There are 2 main types of terrariums, open and close. In this article we will be honing down specifically on the scientific processes in terrariums. Now, have you ever wondered why, although closed terrariums are entirely enclosed, plants (living organisms) are still able to survive and thrive in it?
Light Up Your Team Building & Family Bonding Events With Ecoponics Candle Making Workshops for Bringing People Closer Than Ever Candles are stunning for makingDuring the day, plants make their own food via photosynthesis. They do so by taking in water & nutrients through their roots, carbon dioxide through their stomata (underside of its leaves) and sunlight through their chlorophyll which are normally found on the upper side of its leaves. This process allows plants to make food to fuel its growth while at the same time, release oxygen to the atmosphere.

Where does CO2 come from in a closed ecosystem?
Plant matter is broken down by small decomposers that use carbohydrates together with oxygen to obtain energy. This cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide and water, just like in the air we exhale. Cachad
Note: Thus a combination of photosynthesis and respiration entails that there is constant gaseous exchange in the plant. The plant reuses the carbon dioxide present in the sealed up bottle to produce oxygen via photosynthesis and it uses the surplus of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide via respiration. This means that there is no need for frequent airing of your terrarium!

How do you make an ecosystem in a jar?
Step-by-step GuideStep one: Add small rocks to the bottom of the jar. … Step two: Cover the rocks with a layer of soil (optional) … Step three: Place damp moss over the base layer. … Step four: Accessorize! … Step five: Seal your mini ecosystem. … Step six: Place at a windowsill and enjoy!
These are the 3 main scientific processes mandatory for the terrarium to be self sustainable. Without either one of which, it will not be able to survive enclosed.Closed ecological systems are commonly featured in fiction and particularly in science fiction. These include domed cities, space stations and habitats on foreign planets or asteroids, cylindrical habitats (e.g. O’Neill cylinders), Dyson Spheres and so on. The term is most often used to describe small, man-made ecosystems. Such systems are scientifically interesting and can potentially serve as a life-support system during space flights, in space stations or space habitats. Bottle gardens and aquarium ecospheres are partially or fully enclosed glass containers that are self-sustaining closed ecosystems that can be made or purchased. They can include tiny shrimp, algae, gravel, decorative shells, and Gorgonia.A closed ecological system must contain at least one autotrophic organism. While both chemotrophic and phototrophic organisms are plausible, almost all closed ecological systems to date are based on an autotroph such as green algae.

Do ecosystem jars need oxygen?
An ecosystem in a jar works just like a “real” ecosystem. As a byproduct of photosynthesis, oxygen is produced by plants and algae. The plants require both nitrogen and oxygen, both of which the animals and other living organisms breathe out as carbon dioxide.
In a closed ecological system, any waste products produced by one species must be used by at least one other species. If the purpose is to maintain a life form, such as a mouse or a human, waste products such as carbon dioxide, feces and urine must eventually be converted into oxygen, food, and water.Bokus har sålt böcker online sedan 1997. I utbudet på över 10 miljoner böcker hittar du både fysiska och digitala böcker till låga priser. Läs hur du vill – på papper, på skärm eller streama i Bokus Play – abonnemanget för ljudböcker och e-böcker. Vi klimatkompenserar alla kundfrakter genom Vi-skogen.

How long can a closed terrarium last?
Under optimal conditions and when properly cared for terrariums can last for decades. Though the average terrarium only lasts from four months to two years. Factors like light, moisture, temperature, selection of plants, and size of the container, all play a role in the lifespan of a terrarium.
Kinetic isotope effects related to the breaking of chemical bonds drive Sulfur isotope fraction at ion during dissimilatory sit I fate reduction (DSR), whereas oxygen isotope fractional ion during DSR is dominated by exchange between intercellular sulfur intermediates and water. We use a simplified biochemical model for DSR to explore how a kinetic oxygen isotope effect may be expressed. We then explore these relationships in light of evolving sulfur and Oxygen isotope compositions (delta S-34(SO4) and delta O-18(SO4)) during batch culture growth of twelve strains of surface-reducing bacteria. Cultured under conditions to optimize growth and with identical delta O-18(H2O) and initial delta O-18(SO4), all strains show 34 S enrichment, whereas only six strains show significant O-18 enrichment. The remaining six show no (or minimal) change in delta O-18(SO4) over the growth of the bacteria. We use these experimental and theoretical results to address three questions: (i) which Sulfur intermediates exchange oxygen isotopes with water, (ii) what is the kinetic oxygen isotope effect related to the reduction of adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) to sulfite (SO32-), (iii) does a kinetic oxygen isotope effect impact the apparent oxygen isotope equilibrium values? We conclude that oxygen isotope exchange between water and a sulfur intermediate likely occurs downstream of APS and that our data constrain the kinetic oxygen isotope fractionation for the reduction of APS to sulfite to be smaller than 47 parts per thousand. This small oxygen isotope effect impacts the apparent oxygen isotope equilibrium as controlled by the extent to which APS reduction is rate-limiting.Hydrogen sulphide occurs frequently in the waters of the inner shelf coastal upwelling area off central Namibia. The area affected coincides with hatching grounds of commercially important pelagic fish, whose recruitment may be severely affected by recurring toxic sulphidic episodes. Both episodic biogenic methane gas-driven advective and molecular diffusive flux of hydrogen sulphide have been implicated as transport mechanisms from the underlying organic-matter-rich diatomaceous mud. To test hypotheses on the controls of hydrogen sulphide transport from the sediments on the inner Namibian shelf, water column and sediment data were acquired from four stations between 27 and 72 m water depth over a 3 year long period. On 14 cruises, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, methane, and total dissolved sulphide were determined from water column samples, and pore water dissolved methane, total dissolved sulphide, biomass of benthic sulphide-oxidising bacteria Beggiatoa and Thiomargarita, and bacterial sulphate reduction rates were determined from sediment cores. Superimposed on a trend of synchronous changes in water column oxygen and nutrient concentrations controlled by regional hydrographic conditions were asynchronous small-scale variations at the in-shore stations that attest to localized controls on water column chemistry. Small temporal variations in sulphate reduction rates determined with S-labeled sulphate do not support the interpretation that variable emissions of sulphide and methane from sediments are driven by temporal changes in the degradation rates of freshly deposited organic matter. The large temporal changes in the concentrations of hydrogen sulphide and the co-occurrence of pore water sulphate and methane support an interpretation of episodic advection of methane and hydrogen sulphide from deeper sediment depths – possibly due to gas bubble transport. Effective fluxes of hydrogen sulphide and methane to the water column, and methane and sulphide concentrations in the bottom waters were decoupled, likely due to the activity of sulphide-oxidising bacteria. While the causal mechanism for the episodic fluctuations in methane and dissolved sulphide concentrations remains unclear, this data set points to the importance of alternating advective and diffusive transport of methane and hydrogen sulphide to the water column.

Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of high-molecular weight organic matter is the initial step in sedimentary organic carbon degradation and is often regarded as the rate-limiting step. Temperature effects on enzyme activities may therefore exert an indirect control on carbon mineralization. We explored the temperature sensitivity of enzymatic hydrolysis and its connection to subsequent steps in anoxic organic carbon degradation in long-term incubations of sediments from the Arctic and the North Sea. These sediments were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 24 months at temperatures of 0, 10, and 20 degrees C. The short-term temperature response of the active microbial community was tested in temperature gradient block incubations. The temperature optimum of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, as measured with a polysaccharide (chondroitin sulfate), differed between Arctic and temperate habitats by about 8-13 degrees C in fresh sediments and in sediments incubated for 24 months. In both Arctic and temperate sediments, the temperature response of chondroitin sulfate hydrolysis was initially similar to that of sulfate reduction. After 24 months, however, hydrolysis outpaced sulfate reduction rates, as demonstrated by increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved carbohydrates. This effect was stronger at higher incubation temperatures, particularly in the Arctic sediments. In all experiments, concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were low, indicating tight coupling between VFA production and consumption. Together, these data indicate that long-term incubation at elevated temperatures led to increased decoupling of hydrolytic DOC production relative to fermentation. Temperature increases in marine sedimentary environments may thus significantly affect the downstream carbon mineralization and lead to the increased formation of refractory DOC.Chain-forming diatoms are key CO2-fixing organisms in the ocean. Under turbulent conditions they form fast-sinking aggregates that are exported from the upper sunlit ocean to the ocean interior. A decade-old paradigm states that primary production in chain-forming diatoms is stimulated by turbulence. Yet, direct measurements of cell-specific primary production in individual field populations of chain-forming diatoms are poorly documented. Here we measured cell-specific carbon, nitrate and ammonium assimilation in two field populations of chain-forming diatoms (Skeletonema and Chaetoceros) at low-nutrient concentrations under still conditions and turbulent shear using secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with stable isotopic tracers and compared our data with those predicted by mass transfer theory. Turbulent shear significantly increases cell-specific C assimilation compared to still conditions in the cells/chains that also form fast-sinking, aggregates rich in carbon and ammonium. Thus, turbulence simultaneously stimulates small-scale biological CO2 assimilation and large-scale biogeochemical C and N cycles in the ocean.

We present dissolved nutrient and oxygen concentrations determined with a benthic boundary layer profiling system for a set of stations along a eutrophication gradient in a Baltic Sea estuary. The sampling system yields vertically highly resolved CTD, oxygen, and nutrient profiles of the lowermost 80 cm of water overlying the sediment. Continuous oxygen and CTD measurements over 8 – 24 hours at fixed depths above the sediment surface provided information on the temporal variability of nutrients and the physical structure within the benthic boundary layer. These data indicate multiple short-term episodes of vertical mixing and stable stratification within the boundary layer that can lead to short-term fluctuations in bottom water oxygen of more than 100 µM. This high degree of temporal variability needs to be taken into account for benthic flux calculations that assume vertically mixed benthic boundary layers.Towards the end of the last deglaciation more than 13,500 years ago the southern Baltic Sea was a freshwater lake, the Baltic Ice Lake, for several thousand years during which iron-rich, organic-poor clay was deposited. The modern brackish-marine stage started about 8600 years ago with the deposition of organic-rich mud, which is today characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction and high concentrations of free sulfide. We studied the iron-sulfur diagenesis in gravity cores from the Arkona Basin, SW Baltic Sea, to track the progressing sulfidization front in the buried Ice Lake sediment. The geochemical zonation was unusual as the sulfate concentration dropped steeply by two thirds below which it increased again due to a deep sulfate reservoir. The reservoir had been established during the early Holocene marine period as sulfate and other seawater ions diffused down into the lake sediment for several thousand years. Sulfur isotope analyses confirmed its origin as seawater sulfate, while its oxygen isotope composition indicated a microbially catalyzed equilibration with ambient interstitial water, decoupled from net sulfate reduction. Today, hydrogen sulfide diffuses from the marine mud down into the lake sediment where a black band with high magnetic susceptibility and high iron monosulfide, greigite and elemental sulfur content shows progressing sulfidization of the large pool of solid-phase reactive iron. Dissolved iron from the deep Ice Lake sediment diffuses up to the sulfide front and provides a small supplement to the solid Fe(III) pool as a sulfide sink. Pyrite formation at the sulfidization front may involve surface-bound zero-valent sulfur while, above the front, polysulfides are in equilibrium with the system hydrogen sulfide – polysulfide – rhombic sulfur and may not be important for further pyrite formation. The Holocene iron-sulfur diagenesis observed in the Arkona Basin represents an important transitional state for post-glacial transgressions with organic-rich marine sediment overlying lacustrine clay, such as in other areas of the Baltic Sea or in the Black Sea.

How long does an ecosystem in a jar last?
There is no limit to the kinds of environment you can create with these Bio Jars. If done correctly, they can last for years! Experiment with different types of water and plants, and you will see some incredible things. You can often shine a light inside the jars and see little critters crawling around as well!
Jar är Docent i Geokemi vid Institutionen för Geologiska Vetenskaper på Stockholms Universitet. Jag är också forskningsledare inom Bolin Centre for Climate Research där jag representerar forskningsområdet ”Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate”.Ryder 2019 expedition med isbrytaren Oden riktar sig mot den outforskade marinriket Ryder Glacier, närmare bestämt Sherard Osborne Fjord och angränsande område i norra Nares sund och södra Lincoln Sea. The coastal ocean is characterized by high exchange rates of organic matter, oxygen, and nutrients between the sediment and the water column. The solutes that are exchanged between the sediment and the overlying water column are transported across the benthic boundary layer (BBL) by means of turbulent diffusion. Thus, solute concentration gradients in the BBL contain valuable information about the respective fluxes. In this study, we present the instrumentation and sampling strategies to measure oxygen and nutrient concentration gradients in the BBL. We provide the theoretical background and the calculation procedure to derive ratios of nutrient and oxygen fluxes from these concentration gradients. The noninvasive approach is illustrated at two sampling sites in the western Baltic Sea where nutrient and oxygen concentration gradients of up to 5 and 30 mu M m(-1), respectively, were measured. Nutrient and oxygen flux ratios were used to establish a nitrogen flux balance between sediment and water column indicating that 20% and 50% of the mineralized nitrogen left the sediment in form of N(2) (station A and B, respectively). The results are supported by sediment incubation experiments of intact sediment cores, measuring denitrification rates, and oxygen uptake. The presented flux ratio approach is applicable without knowledge of turbulent diffusivities in the BBL and is, therefore, unaffected by non-steady-state current velocities and diffusivities. Temperature has a fundamental impact on the metabolic rates of microorganisms and strongly influences microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling in the environment. In this study, we examined the catabolic temperature response of natural communities of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in polar, temperate and tropical marine sediments. In short-term sediment incubation experiments with S-35-sulfate, we demonstrated how the cardinal temperatures for sulfate reduction correlate with mean annual sediment temperatures, indicating specific thermal adaptations of the dominant SRM in each of the investigated ecosystems. The community structure of putative SRM in the sediments, as revealed by pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons and phylogenetic assignment to known SRM taxa, consistently correlated with in situ temperatures, but not with sediment organic carbon concentrations or C:N ratios of organic matter. Additionally, several species-level SRM phylotypes of the class Deltaproteobacteria tended to co-occur at sites with similar mean annual temperatures, regardless of geographic distance. The observed temperature adaptations of SRM imply that environmental temperature is a major controlling variable for physiological selection and ecological and evolutionary differentiation of microbial communities. Min forskning fokuserar på de processer inom de stora biogeokemiska cyklar av kol, kväve, syre, svavel, och fosfor i jordens akvatiska miljöer, vilket sker genom mikro- och makroorganismers aktivitet, och deras förhallande till klimatförändringar och eutrofiering. The bearded goby Sufflogobius bibarbatus has become a key component of the pelagic food web off Namibia following the crash in pelagic fish populations during the 1970s, and its biomass is increasing despite significant predation pressure and apparent life-history constraints. The integrated feeding of the bearded goby was studied from samples collected during April 2008, using stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C, delta(15)N, delta(34)S) and fatty acids, to resolve conflict amongst previous dietary studies based on gut-content analysis and to understand how diet could influence its success within the region. Isotopes of carbon and nitrogen suggest that the now abundant jellyfish could contribute up to 74% of the diet, and delta(34)S signatures indicate that the diatom- and bacteria-rich sulphidic sediments on the central shelf may contribute around 15% to the diet. Fatty acid analyses provided support for sulphur bacterial and jellyfish-feeding amongst gobies, and further suggest that small gobies fed more on zooplankton while large gobies fed more on sedimented diatoms. Both data sets suggest that ontogenetic changes in diet were linked to changes in habitat: pelagic when small, more demersal when large. The study highlights the value of using multiple tracers in trophic studies and indicates that the dietary flexibility of the bearded goby, in conjunction with its behaviour and physiology, likely contributes to its success within the northern Benguela ecosystem.Jag är studiedirektor av masterprogrammet och och är ledamot i instituts styrelsen. Dessutom är jag ledamot i beredningsgruppen av sektionen för geo- och miljövetenskaper.

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for life. In the ocean, phosphorus burial regulates marine primary production(1,2). Phosphorus is removed from the ocean by sedimentation of organic matter, and the subsequent conversion of organic phosphorus to phosphate minerals such as apatite, and ultimately phosphorite deposits(3,4). Bacteria are thought to mediate these processes(5), but the mechanism of sequestration has remained unclear. Here, we present results from laboratory incubations in which we labelled organic-rich sediments from the Benguela upwelling system, Namibia, with a P-33-radiotracer, and tracked the fate of the phosphorus. We show that under both anoxic and oxic conditions, large sulphide-oxidizing bacteria accumulate P-33 in their cells, and catalyse the nearly instantaneous conversion of phosphate to apatite. Apatite formation was greatest under anoxic conditions. Nutrient analyses of Namibian upwelling waters and sediments suggest that the rate of phosphate-to-apatite conversion beneath anoxic bottom waters exceeds the rate of phosphorus release during organic matter mineralization in the upper sediment layers. We suggest that bacterial apatite formation is a significant phosphorus sink under anoxic bottom-water conditions. Expanding oxygen minimum zones are projected in simulations of future climate change(6), potentially increasing sequestration of marine phosphate, and restricting marine productivity.
The dependence of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) on different electron donors was tested in the nitrate-containing layer immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) at three stations in the central anoxic basins of the Baltic Sea. Additionally, pathways and rates of fixed nitrogen transformation were investigated with N-15 incubation techniques without addition of donors. Denitrification and anammox were always detected, but denitrification rates were higher than anammox rates. DNRA occurred at two sites and rates were two orders of magnitude lower than denitrification rates. Separate additions of dissolved organic carbon and sulfide stimulated rates without time lag indicating that both organotrophic and lithotrophic bacterial populations were simultaneously active and that they could carry out denitrification or DNRA. Manganese addition stimulated denitrification and DNRA at one station, but it is not clear whether this was due to a direct or indirect effect. Ammonium oxidation to nitrite was detected on one occasion. During denitrification, the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) was as important as dinitrogen (N-2) production. A high ratio of N2O to N-2 production at one site may be due to copper limitation, which inhibits the last denitrificati
on step. These data demonstrate the coexistence of a range of oxidative and reductive nitrogen cycling processes at the Baltic OAI and suggest that the dominant electron donor supporting denitrification and DNRA is organic matter. Organotrophic denitrification is more important for nitrogen budgets than previously thought, but the large temporal variability in rates calls for long-term seasonal studies.Since the collapse of the pelagic fisheries off southwest Africa in the late 1960s, jellyfish biomass has increased and the structure of the Benguelan fish community has shifted, making the bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus) the new predominant prey species. Despite increased predation pressure and a harsh environment, the gobies are thriving. Here we show that physiological adaptations and antipredator and foraging behaviors underpin the success of these fish. In particular, body-tissue isotope signatures reveal that gobies consume jellyfish and sulphidic diatomaceous mud, transferring ””dead-end”” resources back into the food chain.

Abstract: We have investigated if in a cold seep methane or sulfide is used for chemosynthetic primary production and if significant amounts of the sulfide produced by anaerobic oxidation of methane are oxidized geochemically and hence are not available for chemosynthetic production. Geochemically controlled redox reactions and biological turnover were compared in different habitats of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. The center of the mud volcano is characterized by the highest fluid flow, and most primary production by the microbial community depends on oxidation of methane. The small amount of sulfide produced is oxidized geochemically with oxygen or is precipitated with dissolved iron. In the medium flow peripheral Beggiatoa habitat sulfide is largely oxidized biologically. The oxygen and nitrate supply is high enough that Beggiatoa can oxidize the sulfide completely, and chemical sulfide oxidation or precipitation is not important. An internally stored nitrate reservoir with average concentrations of 110 mmol L enables the Beggiatoa to oxidize sulfide anaerobically. The pH profile indicates sequential sulfide oxidation with elemental sulfur as an intermediate. Gray thiotrophic mats associated with perturbed sediments showed a high heterogeneity in sulfate turnover and high sulfide fluxes, balanced by the opposing oxygen and nitrate fluxes so that biological oxidation dominates over geochemical sulfide removal processes. The three habitats indicate substantial small-scale variability in carbon fixation pathways, either through direct biological use of methane or through indirect carbon fixation of methane-derived carbon dioxide by chemolithotrophic sulfide oxidation.

Microorganisms have been repeatedly discovered in environments that do not support their metabolic activity. Identifying and quantifying these misplaced organisms can reveal dispersal mechanisms that shape natural microbial diversity. Using endospore germination experiments, we estimated a stable supply of thermophilic bacteria into permanently cold Arctic marine sediment at a rate exceeding 10 spores per square meter per year. These metabolically and phylogenetically diverse Firmicutes show no detectable activity at cold in situ temperatures but rapidly mineralize organic matter by hydrolysis, fermentation, and sulfate reduction upon induction at 50°C. The closest relatives to these bacteria come from warm subsurface petroleum reservoir and ocean crust ecosystems, suggesting that seabed fluid flow from these environments is delivering thermophiles to the cold ocean. These transport pathways may broadly influence microbial community composition in the marine environment.
The Siberian Arctic Sea shelf and slope is a key region for the degradation of terrestrial organic material transported from the organic carbon-rich permafrost regions of Siberia. We report on sediment carbon mineralization rates based on O2 microelectrode profiling, intact sediment core incubations, 35 S-sulfate tracer experiments, porewater dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), δ13 CDIC, and iron, manganese, and ammonium concentrations from 20 shelf and slope stations. This data set provides a spatial overview of sediment carbon mineralization rates and pathways over large parts of the outer Laptev and East Siberian Arctic shelf and slope, and allowed us to assess degradation rates and efficiency of carbon burial in these sediments. Rates of oxygen uptake and iron and manganese reduction were comparable to temperate shelf and slope environments, but bacterial sulfate reduction rates were comparatively low. In the topmost 20 to 50 cm of sediment, aerobic carbon mineralization dominated degradation and comprised on average 82% of the depthintegrated carbon mineralization. Oxygen uptake rates and 35 S-sulfate reduction rates were higher in the eastern East Siberian Sea shelf compared to the Laptev Sea shelf. DIC/NH4 + ratios in porewaters and the stable carbon isotope composition of remineralized DIC indicated that the degraded organic matter on the Siberian shelf and slope was a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter. Based on dual end member calculations, the terrestrial organic carbon contribution varied between 32% and 36%, with a higher contribution in the Laptev Sea than in the East Siberian Sea. Extrapolation of the measured degradation rates using isotope end member apportionment over the outer shelf of the Laptev and East Siberian Sea suggests that about 16 Tg C per year are respired in the outer shelf sea floor sediment. Of the organic matter buried below the oxygen penetration depth, between 0.6 and 1.3 Tg C per year are degraded by anaerobic processes, with a terrestrial organic carbon contribution ranging between 0.3 and 0.5 Tg per year.

How long do jar ecosystems last?
There is no limit to the kinds of environment you can create with these Bio Jars. If done correctly, they can last for years! Experiment with different types of water and plants, and you will see some incredible things. You can often shine a light inside the jars and see little critters crawling around as well!
Identifying and explaining bottlenecks in organic carbon mineralization and the persistence of organic matter in marine sediments remain challenging. This study aims to illuminate the process of carbon flow between microorganisms involved in the sedimentary microbial food chain in anoxic, organic-rich sediments of the central Namibian upwelling system, using biogeochemical rate measurements and abundances of Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria at two sampling stations. Sulfate reduction rates decreased by three orders of magnitude in the top 20 cm at one sampling station (280 nmol cm-3 d-1 – 0.1 nmol cm-3 d-1) and by a factor of 7 at the second station (65 nmol cm-3 d-1 – 9.6 nmol cm-3 d-1). However, rates of enzymatic hydrolysis decreased by less than a factor of three at both sampling stations for the polysaccharides laminarin (23 nmol cm-3 d-1- 8 nmol cm-3 d-1 and 22 nmol cm-3 d-1- 10 nmol cm-3 d-1) and pullulan (11 nmol cm-3 d-1- 4 nmol cm-3 d-1 and 8 nmol cm-3 d-1- 6 nmol cm-3 d-1). Increasing imbalance between carbon turnover by hydrolysis and terminal oxidation with depth, the steep decrease in cell specific activity of sulfate reducing bacteria with depth, low concentrations of volatile fatty acids (less than 15 M), and persistence of dissolved organic carbon, suggest decreasing bioavailability and substrate limitation with depth.Jag är också lärare inom våra kandidat- och masterprogram i geovetenskaper och geologi, geokemi, och geofysik. Här undervisar jag både i kandidat- och masterkurser.

How long do EcoSpheres last?
2-3 years Ecospheres have a lifespan of 2-3 years on average but there are systems that are living over 10 years. This product can be treated as a science project, low maintenance pet or a closed aquarium.
Now it’s time to cover the rocks with some soil. A hand full of earth does the job as the soil doesn’t need to be anything special. Essentially, you can take it from anywhere. Just be careful not to add soil that includes a lot of sand since this won’t help your mini-ecosystem sustain itself in the long-term. Adding some soil is important as it will serve as the “home” for the moss’ and plants’ roots, enabling them to absorb water and grow. Actually, you can also add some small pieces of old paper as paper is biodegradable and will turn to food for your plants.

Finally, most of the times ecoystems in jars or bottles are used as a way to educate about how our ecosytems work and how they sustain themselves in the long term. This is especially interesting whie discussing the topic of sustainability, whether it’s in the kindergarten, at school, or at university.Place your mini ecosystem in a sunny spot and watch as your moss grows over time! You will also see the ecosystem’s water cycle in real time as the sun evaporates extra water and then condenses on the sides of the jar, only to drip back down to keep the moss hydrated.

In the world of palm trees, few can rival the allure and charm of the Paurotis palm, also referred to as the Everglades palm. With its graceful fronds and versatile nature, this palm species adds Read more…In addition to eating decaying plants and snail excrement, bacteria and other microbes provide plants with carbon dioxide and inorganic nutrients through waste production. Finally, condensation keeps the water cycle going in the closed system. You’ill actually see the ecosystem’s water cycle in real time as the sun evaporates extra water and then condenses on the sides of the jar, only to drip back down to keep the moss hydrated.This is probably the most important step. Nothing survives without water, so make sure to add some standing water to the ecosytstem. How your ecosystem will develop over time strongly depends on how much water you are adding in this step so be careful not to add too much of it. Sprinkling the moss should be just fine, so that a small layer of water is created at the bottom of the jar. Also, don’t use tap water, but standing water from a natural source like a pond, stream, or puddle. This is important because standing water includes lots of bacteria and potentially also seeds as well as eggs, meaning that this way your mini-ecosystem will get some inhabitants.

An ecosystem in a jar is nothing more than a jar, bottle, or glass filled with natural elements like stones, soil, moss, and a bit of murky water. The interesting thing about these mini ecosystems is that they are closed systems, meaning that they are self-sustaining and don’t need any human intervention.
This one is quite obvious. A micro-ecosystem in a jar can be used to cultivate smaller plants and microorganisms, as they can grow in a protected and independent environment. The only thing it takes is a bit of sun and the right temperature.The use-cases for an ecosystem in a jar can vary but most of the times it is used as decoration and hardscape design, as a winter gardening activity, or as a way to educate children about ecosystem and sustainability in a practical way.

Welcome to the fascinating world of the Thatch palm! Picture yourself strolling along a sandy beach, the sun kissing your skin while gentle ocean breezes rustle through lush green foliage. Ah, the enchantment of palm Read more…
Creating an ecosystem in a jar is a great way to educate students about nature in a practical way. In fact, students are likely to remember the concepts behind ecosystems better when experiencing it first-hand. Thus, if you are a teacher, consider integrating this little project in your curriculum. Not only your students will appreciate it, but nature too! There are so many reasons why sustainability education is important and securing ecosystems is definitely one of them.

Start by placing some small rocks and maybe some gravel at the bottom of the jar. However, don’t overdo it and leave enough space for the additional items. The rocks will serve as the base for soil and plants and allows water to be stored in the “ground”.Ultimately, you have to make sure that your small ecosystem is separated from the “real” world as otherwise it won’t be a closed cycle, meaning that it won’t survive. Thus, seal your ecosystem in a jar properly. You can do this either with a lid or with some plastic wrap and use a rubber band to hold it down. The fascinating thing about a biosphere in a container is that it is self-sustaining and doesn’t need any external input, except of sun. So after placing the natural materials in the jar and closing the lid, you can just wait and observe how your small-scale ecosystem develops. Pretty cool, right? If you’ve ever seen a mini ecosystem in a jar before you know how soothing it can be to just watch the small organisms grow and change over time. But having a micro-ecosystem is not only calming for your mind but also for your interior home design.Building a mini ecosystem ain’t hard and is actually pretty starightforward. But you don’t have a green thumb? No worries. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to make your own ecosystem in a jar.